Manual The Primary English Encyclopedia: The Heart of the Curriculum - Third edition

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There are many other examples, but any curriculum with such resonance prepares learners for effective participation in adult life. The Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign did not focus on preparation for adult life. Rather, it engaged young people and adults in a shared venture in literacy and democracy. The experiment demonstrates the possibility of creating resonant curriculum that is both preparation for and participation in adult life. To understand this question, it is helpful to consider two important terms: cultural hegemony and reification. Cultural hegemony refers to a process whereby the dominant view of a culture renders alternative views of the culture irrelevant or meaningless.

Reification refers to the process of rendering abstractions into fixed physical objects. Normally, curriculum designs, as syntheses of culture, unquestioningly reflect the hegemonic point of view. By not explicitly formulating their point of view, these designers reify their curricula. The hegemonic view of curriculum design at the time of the 26th Yearbook was the technical rationalism exemplified by the work of Henry Harap, the most widely used curriculum technician of the period.

Charters, David Snedden, and Henry Harap dominated the field. Some of the editors of the yearbook decried this conservative dominance of the s and advocated that curriculum workers involve textbook publishers in a process that would engage the public in developing a more critical stance towards society. Harold Rugg went further, and published a volume textbook series in social studies grounded on these principles.

A significant curriculum project based on a well-formulated point of view about the merits and deficiencies of U. The study advocated participation of individual schools, teachers, and students in the development of the curriculum as a method of evaluation of the surrounding society and culture. Curriculum theorists such as Michael Apple and Landon Beyer have, since the s, offered a more radical critique of society that decries the hegemony of unbridled capitalism in the culture and in the curriculum of the schools. The work of Patricia Holland and Noreen Garman is grounded in trusting the human imagination in both traditional and [Page ] critical curriculum practice and serves as a useful complement to these theorists.

Curriculum workers ordinarily develop curriculum without articulating a point of view about the merits and deficiencies of U. When such a point of view is well articulated and deeply held, curriculum becomes far more dynamic, interactive, and meaningful. One way to approach this question is to examine the text that has served as a paradigm for curriculum development since the late sthat is, the Tyler Rationale.

It can be argued that this slim volume has been the most significant text in the field of curriculum ever since. Tyler held that in order to develop a proper curriculum four questions need to be answered: 1 What are the school's educational purposes? Curriculum theorists such as George Posner and Landon Beyer have pointed out that the Tyler Rationale reduces the first question about educational purposes to a procedural and technical matter, whereas they view the question of educational purposes as definitive.

In stating this, Posner, Beyer, and others hold that curriculum designers, before they proceed with their design, must determine whose interests are to be served by the curriculum. In this way, these critical theorists stake their claim that curriculum should be regarded as a conscious agency for social improvement. George Counts in the s and s and Theodore Brameld in the s and s promoted similar views dedicated to the idea that the school must be an agent of social change, forming a school of thought called social reconstructionism.

Criticism of these views center on two questions: Can schools be instruments of social change? And ought schools be instruments of social change? Whether or not it is possible for schools to be instruments of social change is a question that has puzzled educators and social thinkers for years. After all, adults are responsible for social change, and children get socialized into the adult world, not the other way around.

Brameld's response to this question was that the curriculum should be owned and controlled by teachers, parents, and students, and no one else. His confidence in the wisdom and power of the common person was unbounded, and some say utopian. Whether or not the schools ought to be instruments of social change is another matter. Historically, schools were created to pass on the culture to the next generation and have served a conservative function in the culture, which begs the question of what is to be conserved in a fundamentally democratic society. Surely it is not the function of the U.

Rather, it seems clear that schools ought to conserve the common sense of Thomas Paine, the courage of George Washington, the sense of justice of Martin Luther King, the temperateness of Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural address, and the persistence of Susan B. A curriculum that conserves these elements would also be a curriculum that serves as an instrument of social change.

In their irreplaceable book Curriculum Books: The First Hundred Years , William Schubert and his colleagues discuss the construction of the 26th Yearbook and the struggle of the editorial board to arrive at a consensus statement about the content of the curriculum in the United States. Schubert and his colleagues provide a useful framework for understanding why such a consensus was not achieved, and how one might look coherently at this question. Schubert said that there were three distinct visions of curriculum content among the members of the editorial board: 1 the intellectual traditionalists, such as William Bagley; 2 the social behaviorists, such as Franklin Bobbitt; and 3 the experientialists, such as William Heard Kilpatrick.

Intellectual traditionalists, who followed what was called a subject-organized curriculum, viewed the curriculum as a set of separate subjects derived from the cultural past. These professionals were not pedants. They were alert to the dangers of attempting to cover too much material and insisting upon rote memorization of facts. They stressed, for example, in the teaching of botany in a manner that demonstrated how botanists work.

They understood that separate subjects could be correlated so that students would be provided opportunities to grasp connections among the subjects they studied. There is little evidence that their ideas about memorization or the correlation of subjects were put into immediate practice. However, in the s, the Eight Year Study experimented with correlating subjects with a broad fields approach to curriculum grounded in problem solving.

Similarly, in the s, the social science curriculum Man: A Course of Study blended the biological and social sciences into one curriculum, and J.

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Lloyd Trump experimented with flexible modular scheduling, an approach to innovative block scheduling for the purpose of interdisciplinary studies, an approach that continues to this day. A contemporary approach to curriculum integration may be found in the work of James Beane. The experientialists, who were called child centered, viewed curriculum from the point of view of the students' experience of school. These thinkers followed John Dewey's idea that all education begins with the experience and the interests of the child and attempted to build curriculum as a process of guiding students in the reconstruction of their experience towards responsible participation in adult and democratic life.

The debate between the intellectual traditionalists and the experiential-ists has been renewed in each decade since the s, most recently in a public conversation on the Internet between the historian Diane Ravitch and the progressive educator Debbie Meier. An attempt to heal this gap was introduced in the s by Arthur King and John Brownell in which they conceived the curriculum as a community of discourse among and between the disciplines of knowledge.

Professional scientists, mathematicians, artists, musicians, linguists, and writers participated in this community of discourse along with administrators, teachers, parents, and students. All participants, they said, can learn and contribute in their own way to the ongoing inquiry and discourse. The social behaviorists viewed curriculum primarily as an instrument of administration and a technique for the control of student learning. They tended to draw their ideas of curriculum content from surveys about the content of adult life at work, at home, and in leisure time.

Based on these surveys, social behaviorists built sets of goals and objectives, or more recently standards and benchmarks, for the curriculum. This view conceived curriculum work primarily as a technical process that was less concerned with school subjects or student experience than it was with measurable outcomes. Of the three visions, the social behaviorist view has dominated curriculum practice over the years, especially in the recent period of the standards movement.

The challenge for curriculum studies today is to keep the other two visions in play so the field can maintain itself, as Rugg described, a bone of contention to be chewed upon. There are, in general, three functions of subject matter in the process of education, which, working together, serve the interests both of individual students and the society. First, subject matter provides children and youth with a store of common knowledge and wisdom. Common knowledge includes the geographic, historical, civic, and literary understandings that provide young persons with a sense of identification with a civilizational past and a cultural presenta sense of citizenship in one's nation and the global community.

Second, subject matter provides a depth of understanding of oneself in the world, a depth of understanding of what it means to be a human person within the story of the universe, the story of [Page ] life, the story of human history, human knowledge, and the symbols that enable this story to keep moving forward.

The physical and life sciences provide this depth of understanding, along with the symbol systems of mathematics, language arts, and the languages of other peoples. Third, subject matter stimulates the imagination, the inquiring consciousness, and the critical mind that enables students to imagine the real possibilities in the present moment, to critically examine the civilizational past and the cultural present, to make music, to dance, and engage in the arts.

Music, art, and physical education are the primary subjects that deal with imaginal learning, and yet the imagination feeds the other two areas of the curriculum as well, and all three of these areas are fundamentally and dynamically connected. Curriculum theorists all hold the importance of subject matter in the curriculum.

There are, however, many disagreements within the field of curriculum studies about the role and function of subject matter. For example, Philip Phenix described the role of subject matter in curriculum emphasizing the integration of the subjects into the whole person and with an openness to ultimate meaning.

Other curriculum inquirers foreground one or another of the three functions. With regard to the first function of subject matter, E. Hirsch puts it in the foreground, as the core of common knowledge. Hirsch holds that the critical thinking implicit in the third role of subject matter requires basic understandings of the facts contained in those subjects. Maria Montessori also foregrounds the first function of subject matter by emphasizing the story of the universe, the story of life, and the needs of humans for food, clothing, shelter, security, transportation, and spirituality as the basis of the education of children from age six to age nine.

This, she said, would provide children with a sense of their role in the ongoing story of life. The second function, depth of understanding of self in the world was a basic aim of the curriculum reform movement of the s and s. Jerome Bruner taught that children can participate in the community of inquirers that make up school subjects, and as they grow in age, they should follow a spiral curriculum that draws them deeper and deeper into the inquiry. Joseph Schwab, whose work is echoed in many respects by the work of Theodore Sizer and the Coalition of Essential Schools, held that it is preferable to know a few subjects in depth than many subjects superficially.

Schwab understood the teacher as the bridge between the formal curriculum and the curriculum as students engage with it. Using the arts of the eclectic, teachers choose from the fund of their knowledge of subject matter and their knowledge of the practice of teaching to apply subject matter to the concrete situation of the classroom. Paul Getty Foundation, which integrates the visual, musical and performing arts through studio and performance work as well as a study of history, aesthetics, and criticism.

Benedict de Spinoza was a lens grinder, a craftsman, an artist, and one of the greatest European philosophers of the 17th century. It is that ideal synthesis of a good solid trade and a highly intellectual education that is sought in answering this question.

Rarely does formal education achieve such integration, for the relationship between general education and vocational education has never reached a settled understanding in the United States. Traditional and progressive curriculum thinkers, though they disagree on its nature, tend to consider a good general education as an adequate preparation for work in the world, or for further professional or vocational studies. In , a deep divide between general and vocational education was struck by the Smith-Hughes Act, which set vocational education and general education on entirely different tracks.

Charles Prosser, one of the foremost advocates of Smith-Hughes, believed, along with Edward Thorndike, that all learning was specific and segregated from other learning. Transfer of training, in their view, did not exist. In vocational education, therefore, Prosser advocated a curriculum in which [Page ] the activities of students mimicked the activities of workers in specific fields as closely as possible. Smith-Hughes established vocational and technical education districts to be separate from regular school districts, virtually separating vocational and general education in the United States.

In some ways the junior college became an extension of this system of schooling. Charters said that the curricula for vocational education should be developed through functional or job analysis. Such analysis included personality profiles for specific trades.

Carpenters, for instance, according to Charters, did not need to be as accurate or as rapid as machinists, but carpentry required more neatness than machinists' work. All the activities of workers in fields as varied as potters and poultry workers were to be analyzed, and these activities were to be the basis for implementing Smith-Hughes. The curriculum reform movement of the s and s generally ignored dealing with this separation. In the s, the cognitive psychologist Lauren Resnick claimed that paying attention to the differences between school learning and learning in the workplace could support the development of a curriculum that reflects the complexity of contemporary life.

School learning, she said, focuses on individual work and individual achievement, whereas learning in the workplace demands shared understandings and communications to achieve shared purposes. School work, she said, emphasizes pure thought, whereas workplaces are structured by the requirements of manipulating the available tools and symbols necessary to accomplish concrete tasks.

Resnick, noting that schools to help students become competent out-of-school learners, advised that the building of curricula that pay attention to the kinds of thinking required outside school could simultaneously serve the interests of general and vocational education. Resnick became a member of the board of the Secretary of Labor's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills SCANS , which in , published a report that did not address the structural issues of vocational education, but did look seriously at the conceptual divide between vocational and general education curricula.

SCANS developed a conception of a general education that would better prepare students for the workforce. SCANS, however, maintained the method of Job Analysis initiated by Charters, and from the perspective of curriculum traditionalists, treated general education as little more than instrumental of vocational education. From the standpoint of progressives, SCANS gives over too much of the curriculum to the values and direction of the business community.

The question of the relationship between general and vocational education remains, in practice, unanswered. The question of whether the curriculum should be made in advance has played a central role in the field of curriculum studies. It also seems to be a preoccupation of teachers in schools. School administrators, however, tend to think the question is settled: Of course, the curriculum is to be made in advance, how else could instruction be delivered? The separation of curriculum from teaching that is instantiated in that kind of thinking and in the practices of school district offices, state legislatures, and the U.

Office of Education must be addressed to answer this question. Between the census of and the census of the majority of the U. During that period, ferment about what was to be taught in schools heightened. Immigration, industrialization, and urbanization were bound to influence questions of what students in elementary and secondary schools need to know and how that knowledge would influence them in adult life.

Both of these efforts focused primarily on the subject areas that students would need for adult life, or for college or university. In , Franklin Bobbitt published The Curriculum , the first book totally dedicated to the making of a school curriculum. He and his associate W. Charters, for all practical purposes, created the field of curriculum development as an activity of technical design. Their principles were taken from the field of industrial management as developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, and prescribed a process of activity analysis for the development of educational objectives, and activities.

Thus, the curriculum developer, in a process separated in time and place from the classroom, would design educational objectives and activities based on the observed activities of competent adults in science, industry, family life, and labor. The teacher's task then was to apply the curriculum through instruction. Progressive educators during the growing industrial period disagreed with both the NEA's subject matter emphasis and the technical-rational approach of Bobbitt and Charters.

Harold Rugg and Anne Schumacher rejected both for their relative inattention to the individual child. John Dewey rejected them for their inattention to what he would call the educational situationthat is the meeting in a moment or range of moments between a prepared and inquiring teacher and a classroom of children, each with his or her own personal history and experience. Dewey's work demonstrated that the dispute between the progressives and the others was about authority. The academic traditionalists and the technical rationalists both believed in the authority of the distant expert, whereas Dewey thought authority in the classroom resided in the student's natural need to reconstruct his or her experience in an actual situation with an actual knowledgeable, inquiring, responsible adult called a teacher.

Hirsch's Core Knowledge who uphold the belief in a preplanned subject matter-based curriculum. Office of Education more closely follow the line of thought begun by Bobbitt and Charters. Progressives such as Deborah Meier, Michael Apple, Elliot Eisner, and Parker Palmer have inherited the progressive view, emphasizing the notion of situated learning.

In the new century, the technical approach of Marzano and others dominates curriculum practice. Some districts have closed down their curriculum departments, but maintain strong commitments to the development and selection of standardized tests that are aligned with national, state, and local standards. Thus, curriculum development is, in practice, largely a matter of selecting textbooks that support improvement in standardized test scores. This practice creates tensions between teachers and school administrators, for it is clear that, in practice, the knowledge of the experts behind the standards, the tests, and the textbooks is held to be of greater worth than the practical insights of teachers in actual educational situations.

Recent debates about U. Diane Ravitch and E. Hirsch, for example, portray a stark divide between progressives such as John Dewey and perennialists such as William Bagley. Similarly, some progressives treat social efficiency curricularists as if they did not care about general education. Though there were deep differences among these persons' visions of curriculum, it must be remembered that Dewey and Boyd Bode affirmed the value of traditional subject matter, Bagley honored the experiences of children as inherent to the educative process, and Franklin Bobbitt, particularly later in life, was committed to general and humanistic education.

When one examines the 26th Yearbook , therefore, one finds a general commitment among the editors to an ongoing process of comprehensive curriculum study on the part of curriculum committees.

The Primary English Encyclopedia | The heart of the curriculum | Taylor & Francis Group

These committees would include subject matter specialists, teachers, and other specialists who would be willing and able to pay careful [Page ] attention to the experiences of students as they work their way through the curriculum. In that sense, the editors advocated experimentation, or what later became known as action research or more currently, site-based staff development.

The recent winner-take-all debates about the public school have not served the curriculum field well, and the result has been the reduction of curriculum to a business-efficiency model that focuses almost entirely on technical matters and the development of standardized tests in the name of science. If the curriculum field were to reestablish the dialectic among the three visions of curriculum described in the yearbook, the place of the teacher in the process of curriculum making would be enlarged, the participation of university faculty and subject area specialists would become essential, and the notion of science utilized in the federal legislation No Child Left Behind would expand to include history, the humanities, ethnographic research, and philosophical analysis.

The conversation required to restore and renew curriculum practice would accept the reality of opposed principles, opposed ideas, and opposed practices as normal. Then, through experimentation and conversation, curriculum committees could compare principles, practices, and results not merely to show one to be better than another, but to find the benefits and deficits of each and all. Trust in the experience, the good will, and the intelligence of all those engaged in the work has the potential to realize the notion of Harold Rugg that opposing curriculum ideas provide opportunity for discourse and discussion.

Question 10 asks about assessment and evaluation, terms about which there is some lack of clarity. Assessment generally is taken to mean the process of obtaining, interpreting, and documenting information about student learning. So assessment includes pretesting, posttesting, observing student behavior, interviewing teachers and students, and reviewing teachers' assignments and student work including exhibitions, portfolios, presentations, tests, and written work, sometimes with the guidance of a scoring rubric.

Evaluation, on the other hand, is making the judgment about what students have learned based upon the evidence gathered in the assessment process. Assessment and evaluation take place on two levels: evaluation of what students have learned and the evaluation of the curriculum and instruction that has guided their learning. The way one goes about evaluating students or curriculum depends upon the purpose of the evaluation and the use to which the information and the judgment shall be put. In , Michael Scriven made an important distinction between formative and sum-mative evaluation.

The purpose of formative evaluation is to improve current practices and processes in classrooms and schools. The purpose of summative evaluation is to make judgments about the worth of the results of those practices and processes in order to improve student learning and the curriculum for the future.

Scriven made another significant contribution, which has been elaborated by Robert Stake through what they have called goal-free or responsive evaluation. In this approach, the evaluator does not attend to the goals and purposes of the curriculum, but uses qualitative methods such as close observations, in-depth interviews, and grounded theory in order to discern the kinds of learning that occur quite apart from the intentions of the curriculum makers. Elliot Eisner has described a form of evaluation called educational connoisseurship. This practice is not unlike Scriven's goal-free evaluation and has many similarities with Joseph Schwab's arts of the eclectic.

The educational connoisseur observes the student, the classroom, or the curriculum as a drama critic might observe a play. Noting the context of the object being evaluated, the connoisseur draws upon all the elements in the setting and in the wider world, and makes a holistic judgment of their worth. Judgments about whether learning has taken place, then, are never definitive. Rather, they are inferences based on data that have been gathered in a variety of ways from a variety of sources for the purpose of improving curricula and student learning.

For this reason, using scores on standardized [Page ] tests to judge the knowledge of a student or the worth of a curriculum must be complemented with multiple sources of data including data from student work on assignments and the professional judgment of classroom teachers so that these pieces of information can be used to improve student learning and curricula. This question is best understood in the context of the curriculum movement called social efficiency. A trait is a habitual way of relating to one's world and to other persons. It is what some educators today call a disposition.

David Snedden and his student Charles Prosser held that a person's character is a sum total of his or her traits. On this basis, Franklin Bobbitt and W. Charters developed the method of activity or job analysis, which observed and analyzed the behavior of adults and developed curricula that would as closely as possible have students mimic those behaviors in school. Philip Jackson has called this approach to curriculum mimetic teaching. Mimetic teaching has manifested itself over the years in various curricula such as vocational education, education for democracy, life-adjustment education, and character education.

The belief that a person's character is the sum total of his or her traits is peculiarly behaviorist in origin and contrasts with the traditionalists' understanding of character as intellectual and spiritual, as well as the progressives' understanding of character as active, dynamic, and inquiring. Mimetic curricula, then, are very useful, but when used to the exclusion of traditional and progressive curricula they are inadequate to the task of preparing the young to live in an increasingly complex world. Moreover, the tendency of social efficiency educators to exclude some studies, such as Latin or philosophy or literature from the curriculum on the grounds that they are not efficient or useful is short-sighted.

There are at least three alternative approaches to curriculum for character education that differ from and may complement the learning of traits from their natural setting. The first of these is generally called character education such as The Children's Morality Code published in by William Hutchins. This approach provided rules for conduct for children aimed at developing habits of self-control, good hygiene, good workmanship, truth telling, and teamwork. Prominent in this approach is the contemporary program Character Counts , which is based on what are called six pillars of character: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship.

The second approach focuses on decision making and the facing of moral dilemmas. Merrill Harmin, Louis Raths, and Sydney Simon pioneered this approach in the s with their work on values clarification, which used exercises to help students clarify their values and change their behavior. In a slightly different way, Lawrence Kohlberg worked on a developmental approach to moral reasoning by presenting children with moral dilemmas to think through and solve. A third approach has been explored by Kevin Ryan and Karen Bohlin and concerns itself with virtue ethics and what may be called communities of character.

Drawing on a range of resources, this approach aims at developing shared visions, values, and virtues in a school community. The education of character has long been of central importance in the U. The narrow focus on selecting educational activities that match desirable traits to their natural settings as captured from adult life cannot meet that challenge.

When curriculum workers, including teachers, devise simulations; tell stories; practice improvisations; study and engage students in discussions of art, science, mathematics, music, and literature; and implement service learning projects, they communicate to students that the moral life is central to human living. To achieve remembrance of that seriousness in students' later awareness and practice is a central goal of curriculum. All curriculum practitioners affirm the need to provide for individual differences among learners.

The way they understand this question and act in relation to it, however, varies broadly. A useful way of understanding these differences is to examine different stances curricularists take [Page ] toward the content of the curriculum, the processes of implementing the curriculum especially in terms of teaching practices, and the kinds of results sought through this content and these processes.

In the s, Benjamin Bloom developed Mastery Learning as an individualized approach through which individual students would master what the schools wanted them to know and be able to do at their own pace and through methods that were most appropriate to their needs and styles of learning. Later, systematic designers of instruction such as Walter Dick and Lou Carey, focused their attention on the purely technical aspects of curriculum, such as the analysis of behavioral outcomes, the needs of individual learners, instructional delivery options, and setting up online instructional systems for distance learning.

Whether intended or not, these approaches, in practice seemed to be reduced to the achievement of behavioral objectives as measured by standardized tests. The cognitivist David Ausubel took a less linear approach. Focusing on verbal learning, Ausubel set out a two-dimensional chart that ranged from rote learning to meaningful learning on the one hand, and from discovery learning to receptive learning on the other. In general, he thought, learning followed a path through discovery and rote learning to meaningful and receptive learning, and the task of curriculum and instruction was to guide students along this path by using what he called advance organizers.

An advance organizer is a technique that enables students to connect what they already know with what is mapped out before them as what they will soon come to know. This approach, which in some sense is a reprise of the work of the 19th-century German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbart, has assumed many forms over the years and has been used widely and elaborated more fully particularly in the work of Carol Ann Tomlinson and those who promote differentiated instruction.

While combining elements of behaviorist and cognitivist approaches, differentiated instruction begins as a response to the needs students have in common such as the need for safety and belonging and to those characteristics, which differentiate one student from another, such as their learning styles and emotional makeup. Like those other approaches, differentiated instruction adapts teaching methods and pacing to individual students and utilizes continuous diagnostic and formative assessment.

But more than those approaches, differentiated instruction pays attention to the students' search for meaning in their lives, to the right balance between providing safety and challenge, to the need for collaborative learning, and to the differences inherent in gender, race, language, class, socioeconomic status, and culture among them. Each of these approaches pays considerable attention to individual differences in terms of educational procedures and results, yet they pay insufficient attention to the content of the curriculumthat is, to the following questions: What knowledge is of most worth?

And whose knowledge is of most worth? Traditional thinkers such as E. Hirsch and Chester Finn and progressive thinkers such as Theodore Sizer and Michael Apple have spent much time and energy devoted to those questions, yet the disagreements among these groups point to a need for rapprochement between all partiesthat is, traditionalists, progressives, curricularists, and instructional technicians.

To what degree should the curriculum provide for individual differences, is still, after all these years, a live question. The U. This accountability approach mandates what are called scientifically proven strategies to address individual needs. The widely publicized lament over RTI on the part of teachers and the general public would indicate the question is, indeed, still open. At the turn of the 20th century there was much ferment between teachers and curriculum experts, most of whom were specialists in content areas.

This committee was established to explore wastes of time and potential savings of time in the school curriculum. Through analyzing and quantifying the activities of adults, the [Page ] committee attempted to pare down the elementary school curriculum to include only those learnings that were of most social utility.

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This was a watershed moment in the history of the U. The authors believed that the curriculum from elementary school through college could be reduced from 16 to 14 years. The 14th Yearbook is a classic in the tradition of social efficiency in curriculum studies. The report claimed that the greatest waste in those 16 years was to be found in the elementary school curriculum, which they wanted to reduce from 8 to 6 years.

The essential knowledge, habits, ideals, and attitudes for individual and social needs, they said, could be learned in that amount of time. The authors and editors settled on a two-stage process for defining these minimum essentials. In the first stage, curricularists needed to decide which subjects and which parts of subjects were both comprehensible and socially useful for the students at any given level. In the second stage, they developed criteria for excluding curriculum material.

To exclude material, its social utility needed to be weighed against the time and effort it took for a majority of students to learn it. When the committee finished its work, the members realized that their results were tentative and incomplete. So the question of the place of minimum essentials was still alive at the time of the 26th Yearbook. In the s, it was widely thought that Ralph Tyler had resolved the question by including the needs of society, the needs of learners, and the demands of subject area specialists as the basis for curriculum construction. But actually, what Tyler did was bring to light that the rationale for minimum essentials was not so much science as it was philosophy.

In the s, academic traditionalists such as Arthur Bestor and progressive thinkers such as Jerome Bruner attempted to reemphasize the importance of subject matter and the disciplines of knowledge in curriculum building. In the late s and s, a more child-centered approach was championed by educators such as Herbert Kohl and John Holt. The standards movement, which officially began in , has, ironically, much in common with the advocates of minimum essentials and the work of both Bestor and Bruner.

The assessment approach mandated by NCLB has vitiated any connection the standards movement may have had with the likes of Bestor and Bruner. An almost universal rejection by teachers of current state and local testing practices has garnered responses from curricularists such as Linda McNeil who advocate the collaboration of students and teachers in the cocreation of curriculum. One promising development in this debate has been a growth in scholarly interest in teacher education.

One such effort began in with the Holmes Partnership, which is a consortium of 80 schools and colleges of education committed to academic improvement of teacher education programs. The Holmes Partnership schools affirm the need for high academic standards in colleges of education, which, in addition to requiring broad and rich liberal education, require teacher candidates to achieve a degree in an academic discipline in addition to their professional education degree.

Teachers with such strong academic backgrounds ought to be trusted to develop curriculum at the schools in which they teach. Progressive educator Deborah Meier affirms such an approach to curriculum improvement, and it has been proven effective in the education miracle that has occurred in Finland, where colleges of education are the most competitive colleges in the universities. The form and organization of the curriculum is in every case a matter of choice, the product of a decision. The curriculum is in essence a selection of culture and politics, and the selection that is made depends upon the cultural and political interests of the curriculum designers.

Herbert Kliebard has suggested that there are three major tendencies among curriculum designers that may be expressed in terms of three metaphors: 1 the metaphor of production, 2 the metaphor of growth, and 3 the metaphor of travel. The metaphor of production has dominated curriculum development since the s beginning [Page ] with the scientific rationalist approach of Franklin Bobbitt, W.

The form of curricula developed under this metaphor is fundamentally industrial. Curriculum designers delineate the specifications of the results they want to achieve and state them in terms of goals and objectives or standards and benchmarks. They then set out to design and organize materials and procedures in such a way that teachers can deliver instruction in a manner and pace that will produce the desired results.

These results are often expressed in terms of grades, grade-point averages, or standardized test scores. The approach is so common that in ordinary conversation one hears graduates of particular schools referred to as products of those schools. The major interest here is the control of the process and the product of the curriculum.

The metaphor of growth is at least as ancient as civilization itself, for it represents the inevitable resistance to the rules and regulations imposed by civilization. It was the basis of the educational classic Emile , of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi provided a major impetus to this way of thinking about curriculum by focusing on the inner capacities of the individual child and permitting children to grow first as they observe and interact with the world around them and only later through language, mathematics, and other subjects that would broaden their horizons into personal and social maturity.

Friedrich Froebel and, later, Maria Montessori expanded upon Pestalozzi's work through developing elaborate sets of materials and placing them in what Montessori called a prepared environment in which the child naturally grew with the support of a carefully observant, tender, and relatively unobtrusive teacher. Contemporary followers of Jean Piaget, called constructivists , have also inherited this tradition.

Eleanor Duckworth and Eileen Knight have made significant curricular contributions in science and mathematics from this perspective. The major interest in this case is the growth of the individual child. The metaphor of travel has much in common with the metaphor of growth, but it moves beyond the growth of the individual child to the broadening of the child's horizons into the world of public responsibility.

The content of the curriculum that is, reading, writing, mathematics, science, social studies, fine arts, and humanitiesare taken as seriously as they are under the earlier two metaphors, but all these studies are understood in terms of how they may be used to engage and in some cases, transform the world. Perhaps the best exemplar of the travel metaphor was Boyd Bode. A progressive, Bode insisted on grounding curriculum on social and public philosophy and understood the subject matters of the curriculum as instruments to inspire students to engage in democracy as a way of life.

The major interest served by the metaphor of travel is the emancipation of society, and some curricularists such as George Counts and, later, Michael Apple understood the school primarily as a force to achieve justice in U. The philosopher Maxine Greene emphasized the notion that the transformation of the individual consciousness of students leads directly to the transformation of society. Because curricula are grounded in choice, curriculum studies is a normative field of study, and requires scholars to understand the deep connection among the goals chosen, the standards embraced, the materials and textbooks selected, the teaching practices encouraged, and the methods of evaluation adopted.

Once scholars grasp those connections, they are required to engage in ethical dialogue about whose interests are being served by each curricular approach. In such a way, curriculum scholars can clarify who is and who ought to carry the burdens of justice in our society. The authors of this question were struggling to come up with a way to synthesize their disparate views of curriculum making. This was quite a challenge, for as editors of the 26th Yearbook , they represented a wide range of opinion precisely about this question.

William Bagley, whose views have been called essentialist, held firmly to the primacy of school subjects, especially language, mathematics and science, and had a low regard for the project method advocated by another of the editors, William Heard Kilpatrick.

There was a similar conflict between the views of Franklin Bobbitt, whose activity analysis functioned as a method for the reproduction of the contemporary society, and those of George Counts, who was [Page ] moving from the child-centered views of some progressive educators to a theory that the school should be an instrument of social reconstruction.

In a joint statement, these four and the eight other members of the yearbook's editorial board dealt with their differences with generosity and civility, yet they could not come up with a synthesis concerning the place of spontaneous student interests and the making of a curriculum. Ten years before the NSSE 26th Yearbook , in his book Democracy and Education , John Dewey defined interest as being enraptured by some object and to be alert and totally attentive. Dewey thought that when students pursue their interests, they develop the required discipline that enables them to reconstruct their original concern into new and vital knowledge, a very reconstruction of experience.

Whether or not the interests of the children, conceived in such a profound sense, can serve as the mainspring of curriculum making remains an open question to this day. Clearly, Dewey himself had a nuanced view of school subjects and did not reduce curriculum to a working through of children's interests. Maxine Greene has recast the question of the curriculum and the child's interest by talking about a student's re-creating the materials of the curriculum in terms of his or her own consciousness.

This manner of conceiving curriculum takes for granted that the materials of the curriculum are to be selected as a synthesis of culture and that the task of the student is to transcend the narrowness of his or her own personal world and empathically engage with and be transformed by the curriculum, thereby enriching herself, the curriculum, and the culture. The curriculum maker's task then becomes one of selecting and framing school subjects, materials, and practices in such a way that moves children beyond superficial motivation to vital engagement with the public world in which they are participants.

The term material in this question included textbooks, audio-visual aids, and whatever learning situations a curriculum maker might choose for students. The editors of the yearbook were concerned that people thought learning to be merely the ability to repeat back correct words, phrases, or formulas without genuine understanding of their meaning. To move beyond mere memorization was important to every member of the board, for they understood learning as any change in students' ability to manage their conduct in an increasingly advantageous manner.

In fact, they coined the term advantageous learning to make this point. It was agreed, therefore, that lifelike learning experiences needed to be discovered and chosen for incorporation into the curriculum. The analysis of adult activities, then, was a method for determining those learning experiences that were most lifelike. Social efficiency educators have tended to think that materials that most closely resemble adult activities in the home, the workplace, and in leisure time ought to be sought out and utilized in education. Traditional and perennialist educators have tended to find activities for students that move them to think and act like professional historians, mathematicians, scientists, writers, and the like.

Progressive educators have tended to find problem-solving activities so that students might grow in the habit of analyzing and solving problems in their responsibilities as citizens and members of communities. In brief, socially efficient materials would aim at efficiency in the workplace and home, traditionalist materials would aim at developing early scientists or mathematicians, and progressive materials would aim at creating informed and pragmatic citizens. Most recently, the educational philosopher Gary Fenstermacher has advocated studying adults in society to derive standards for curriculum in the schools.

He claims that adults who have made a democratic society function have been characterized by four qualities: 1 reasonableness, 2 agency, 3 a sense of relationship, and 4 morality. Each of these, he says, must become a conscious aim of the curriculum. By reasonableness he means the ability to think clearly with the ability to pay attention to evidence and to connect evidence to claims about the world. By agency he means the ability to act on one's own plans and intentions and not solely on the plans and intentions of some other person or institution.

By a sense of relationship Fenstermacher means a sense that other persons [Page ] are truly other and that relationships require a recognition of the legitimacy of that otherness. By morality he means cardinal virtues such as prudence, temperance, and courage. Fenstermacher goes on to show that a liberal and progressive curriculum is required to meet those four aims and cites the work of Andre Comte-Sponville, Thomas Green, and Israel Scheffler as sources that support such achievement.

The liberal education sponsored by this approach would combine the commitment to achieve the common good that is found in the work of orators such as Quintilian and John Dewey with the commitment to discover the truth that is found in philosophers such as Socrates and scientists such as Einstein. The editors of the 26th Yearbook believed in the right of the individual student to learn what she or he needed to learn in the way that was most suited to that individual.

Yet they also realized that there was a need to manage the curriculum so that student learning would not be lopsided. They thought that the weighting of material in the curriculum was primarily a responsibility of a centralized group of experts, and it was the responsibility of the school and the teachers to administer that curriculum. The accountability movement of the past 25 years has inspired the development of standards by subject matter organizations such as the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics and the National Council for the Social Studies for each of the areas of the curriculum.

These national standards tend to be fairly general, but the mandate of the federal government has been to render them more specific through the generation of benchmarks and ultimately standardized test items through the agency of state and local boards of education. The tension between efforts to centralize curriculum standardization on the one hand and to rely upon the prudential professional judgment of teachers and school principals on the other has been very high at the beginning of the new century.

Any curriculum today needs to address the specific challenges arising from contemporary life. These challenges include the following: the increasing divide between the rich and poor, both between and within nations; the mass displacement of peoples and families and the homeless-ness of millions; the mobility of student populations; the historically disproportionate number of single-parent families; religious, ethnic, gender, and racial conflicts; the rights of handicapped persons; and the dominance of computer and Internet technologies.

In the light of these challenges, Mortimer Adler and others have argued for one curriculum for all U. They view this unity of curriculum as crucial to democracy and equality of opportunity in society. However, standardization of curriculum requires more uniformity than what these theorists would accept. With the possible exception of legislators, higher level governmental administrators, and single-minded advocates of educational accountability, it is difficult to find a curriculum thinker who advocates a highly standardized curriculum. For the most part, students of curriculum look at the complex set of challenges noted in the previous paragraph and acknowledge there must be a range of ways for curriculum to address them and an acknowledgment that no curriculum can address them all.

On the other hand, the mobility of children from one school to another argues for some level of standardization. In the 19th century, William Torrey Harris had developed a curriculum in St. Louis, Missouri, according to which if a student moved from one school on one day and into another the next he or she would not miss a beat, for all students would be on the same page in the same book. Harris's curriculum congers up an image of a standardized curriculum, which in the context of current technological prowess, shows promise for contemporary social sufficiency advocates.

Whether or not the image is realistic is open to debate. Perhaps the question is best understood through asking another question: What is learning? Is learning limited to exhibiting behaviors sought after by school administrators? If that is true, what could the philosopher of education Eugene A. Walsh have meant when he told students not to let school get in the way of their education? Curriculum scholar William Pinar has spent much of his career exploring the ramifications of currere, the Latin infinitive form of the verb to run.

On this view, [Page ] one only understands learning in terms of the lived experience of individual persons and on how they report that experience and standardization if curriculum is in some respects irrelevant to learning. He and Walsh are probably on the same page and in fundamental agreement with the authors of volume 1 of the th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education.

The editors of the 26th Yearbook were part of the Progressive Era, and even when they disagreed about issues of the curriculum, they believed in the expertise of those who studied education as a science. Thus, they advocated at the same time a more centralized educational system and a more differentiated curriculum, both of which were to be managed by highly trained educational experts.

This approach facilitated a divide between curriculum talk and actual curriculum practice, a divide which continues to this day. In the first half of the 20th century there was a flurry of curriculum innovation including the project method of William Heard Kilpatrick, the Dalton plan of Helen Parkhurst, and the Eight Year Study of the Progressive Education Association.

In the second half of the century, innovation continued with the disciplines of knowledge approach spawned by the National Defense Education Act NDEA , a renewed focus on early childhood education supported by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and the accountability movement sanctioned by the Educate America Act of The accountability movement was renewed in the new century by the federal law NCLB.

A major difference between the innovations before midth century and those after mid-century was the growing influence of the federal government on curriculum policy. Before NDEA, most curriculum reform was either endorsed by, supported by, or studied by some independent educational organization such as the National Education Association or the Progressive Education Association.

The administrative progressives wanted curriculum to be in the hands of education experts who were independent of politics, but that independence has eroded gradually over the past 50 years. Especially since NCLB, the curriculum field has been floundering in a kind of no man's land. Curriculum scholars, subject area experts, teachers, school principals, social scientists, psychologists, and public intellectuals engage in what Tyack and Cuban call policy talk, while the actual curricular decisions are in the hands of politicians, and the implementation of those decisions are in the hands of standardized test and textbook publishers, computerized school management systems, and state and local board-of-education-level administrators.

Some school districts have eliminated their curriculum departments to make sure there are sufficient funds for testing. Critical thought about curriculum is sought in theory, but scorned in practice. So the administrative questions about curriculum are challenging indeed. A considerable amount of research has shown that when the school principal acts as an instructional leader the school improves significantly. Research on staff development, on the personal practical knowledge of teachers, on teachers' action research projects, on the formation of teachers into learning communities, and on consultancies and tuning protocols are examples of ways that principals have influenced curriculum effectively.

School principals, however, need far more support from universities and from professional education organizations to redress the balance that has been lost since the middle of the 20th century. The hope of an engaged curriculum movement in this country is to be found in trust in schools, trust in teachers, trust in administrators, trust in curriculum thinkers and researchers, and trust that politicians can be persuaded to pay as much attention to democracy and equality as a way of life; to research in neurobiology, educational anthropology, and arts education; and to the lived experience of teachers in schools as they currently do to test publishers and psychometricians.

After , the encyclopedia's data was partially included into the later Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia in an updated and revised form. In library classification systems, realia are three-dimensional objects from real life such as coins, tools, and textiles, that do not easily fit into the orderly categories of printed material. They can be either man-made artifacts, tools, utensils, etc. Archival and manuscript collections often receive items of memorabilia such as badges, emblems, insignias, jewelry, leather goods, needlework, etc.

Most government or institutional archives reject gifts of non-documentary objects unless they have a documentary value. When accepting large bequests of mixed objects they normally have the donors sign legal documents giving permission to the archive to destroy, exchange, sell or dispose in any way those objects which, according to the best judgement of the archivist, are not manuscr.

The Harvard Library is the umbrella organization for the Harvard University libraries and their shared services, such as access, preservation, digital infrastructure, digital imaging, and discovery services. The Harvard Library is nearly years old, making it the oldest library system in the United States. Additionally, the Harvard Library is the largest private library system and largest academic library in the world. Based on the number of items held, it is the fifth largest library in the United States.

Documentation is the study of the recording and retrieval of information. Paul Otlet — and Henri La Fontaine — , both Belgian lawyers and peace activists, established documentation science as a field of study. He, in particular, is regarded as the progenitor of information science. In the United States, was a landmark year in the transition from documentation science to information science: the American Documentation Institute became the American Society for Information Science and Technology, and Harold Borko introduced readers of the journal American Documentation to the term in his paper "Information science: What is it?

Information science has not entirely subsumed documentation science, however. Berard , p. Charles Pratt, founder of Pratt Institute, recognized the need for a library that served both the faculty and students of the Institute as well as Brooklyn residents. He also recognized the need to have a facility for training of librar. The School formerly awarded a Diploma in Librarianship. From , the School also awarded a Diploma in Archive Administration.

Its sheer scope and size made it the world's largest general encyclopedia until it was surpassed by Wikipedia on September 9, nearly six centuries later. Jesus Lau is a Mexican librarian, and a contributor to the fields of information science and library and information science since ; his research focuses on information literacy and the development of information competencies.

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Information access is the freedom or ability to identify, obtain and make use of data or information effectively. During discussions on free access to information as well as on information policy, information access is understood as concerning the insurance of free and closed access to information. Information access covers many issues including copyright, open source, privacy, and security. The vendor neutral citation movement in the legal field is working to ensure th. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.

The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world. The small Congressional Library was housed in the Uni. Knowledge organization KO , organization of knowledge, organization of information, or information organization is an intellectual discipline concerned with activities such as document description, indexing, and classification that serve to provide systems of representation and order for knowledge and information objects. It addresses the "activities carried out and tools used by people who work in places that accumulate information resources e.

It discusses the processes that are in place to make resources findable, whether someone is searching for a single known item or is browsing through hundreds of resources just hoping to discover something useful. Information organization supports a myriad of information-seeking scenarios. In computing, a digital object identifier DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization ISO. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found.

The DOI for a document remains fi. The Encyclopedia of Life EOL is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world. The project was initially led by Jim. Founded in as a land-grant institution, its campus is located in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana. Offprint of Selbstdarstellungen by Sigmund Freud from L.

An offprint is a separate printing of a work that originally appeared as part of a larger publication, usually one of composite authorship such as an academic journal, magazine, or edited book. They may be valued by collectors as akin to the first separate edition of a work and, as they are often given away, may bear an inscription from the author. Historically, the exchange of offprints has been a method of correspondence between scholars. Entrance facing Loeb House Lamont Library, in the south-east corner of Harvard Yard in Cambridge, Massachusetts, houses the Harvard College Library's primary undergraduate collection in humanities and social sciences.

Keyes D. A modified version Dewey classification scheme was used, and the main spaces included capacious open-shelf alcoves for browsing, study, and resear. The International Society for Knowledge Organization, or ISKO, is the principal professional association for scholars of knowledge organization, knowledge structures, classification studies, and information organization and structure. Founded in , ISKO's mission is "to advance conceptual work in knowledge organization in all kinds of forms, and for all kinds of purposes, such as databases, libraries, dictionaries and the Internet.

ISKO "promotes research, development and applications of knowledge organization systems that advance the philosophical, psychological and semantic approaches for ordering knowledge; provides the means of communication and networking on knowledge organization for its members; and functions as a connecting link between all institutions and national societies, working with p. Since then, CCC has recessed most of its assets, but because its earlier works attract admirers of classic pornography, CCC still functions today via the Internet.

Films In Denmark legalized the production of all kinds of pornography. By the s, video tape had replaced the film loops, sometimes as compilations of previously released material. CCC films usually had a wider range of contents including bestiality,[5] some of which last starred Bodil Joensen, and other content not widely available at the time. Urolagnia was also displayed. By , Color Climax had past film stars such as Rocco S. These groups of people or actors are different kinds of professionals.

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The social system also contains institutes such as research institutes, publishers, and libraries. The actors and institutions perform information services such as writing, publishing, storing and retrieving documents and information. The actors are communicating in both formal and informal ways and they are producing different kinds of documents such as journal articles, books, book reviews, proceedings, bibliographies and catalogues, dictionaries, handbooks, encyclopedias and review articles.

The UNISIST model can be used to define relations between various kinds of scientific and scholarly documents and to compare various domains and their discursive practices. It works with libraries, cultural institutions, and higher learning communities on developing strategies to improve research, teaching, and learning environments. CLIR is overseen by a member board of directors. The following are among CLIR's major programs. Digital Library Federation The Digital Library Federation DLF is a community of practitioners who advance research, learning, social justice, and the public good through the creative design and wise.

Prior to the library's official inauguration in , other libraries existed that performed the same function informally. The first prototype of a national library in Iran was the Library of Dar al-Funun College, established in In , another library called the "Nation's Library" was inaugurated in Tehran.

The central main branch is located in north central Tehran. The new building is specially designed to combine different faculties of the library in a single platform. It encompasses 5 separate halls, each hall dedicated to a different faculty, including Humanities, Social Sciences, Law, Science and Science Education, and Health Studies. It took over. This page provides lists of best-selling individual books and book series to date and in any language. Comics and textbooks are not included in this list. The books are listed according to the highest sales estimate as reported in reliable, independent sources.

This list is incomplete because there are many books, such as The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, or A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens, that are commonly cited as "best-selling books" yet have no reliable sales figures. Similarly, many notable book series that sold very widely are poorly documented Land of Oz or consist of multiple sub-series Tom Swift. In addition to acquiring scientific literature, it also conducts applied research in such areas as the archiving of non-textual materials, data visualization and the future Internet.

The library is also involved in a number of open access initiatives. With a collection of over 9 million items in ,[1] the TIB is the largest science and technology library in the world. It is a particular specialist. Relevance is the concept of one topic being connected to another topic in a way that makes it useful to consider the second topic when considering the first.

The concept of relevance is studied in many different fields, including cognitive sciences, logic, and library and information science. Most fundamentally, however, it is studied in epistemology the theory of knowledge. Different theories of knowledge have different implications for what is considered relevant and these fundamental views have implications for all other fields as well.

Definition "Something A is relevant to a task T if it increases the likelihood of accomplishing the goal G , which is implied by T. The basic understanding of relevance does not depend on whether we speak of "things" or "information".

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For example, the Gandhian principles are of great relevance in today's world. Epistemology If you believ. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. Meredith, Joseph C. The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: a review of reviews, a summary evaluation and a suggested salvage operation. Canadian Library Journal, December issue, pp.

Anderson, James D. Review: Miriam A. The Library Quarterly 74 3 , Chalcraft, Tony Reference Reviews 25 1 , Bates, Marcia J. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences topic First edition in 73 volumes and 2nd edition in 4 volumes Library and information science topic Library and information science LIS sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences [1][2] or as "library and information studies"[3] is a merging of library science and information science.

Library and information scientist topic A library and information scientist, also known as a library scholar, is a researcher or academic who specializes in the field of library and information science and often participates in scholarly writing about and related to library and information science. Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Outline of library science topic The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to library science: Library science — study of issues related to libraries and the information fields.

Essence of library science Glossary of library and information science Cataloging Classification Information architecture Librarian Library Branches of library science Archival science Bibliographic databases Cataloging Library instruction Preservation Readers' advisory Reference Types of library-science professionals Librarian Application specialist — see integrated library system Folders related to Outline of library science: Outlines of applied sciences Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Outlines of sciences Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Wikipedia outlines Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Library history topic Library history is a subdiscipline within library science and library and information science focusing on the history of libraries and their role in societies and cultures. In the s, the excavation at Ebla's library unearthed over 20, clay tablets written in cuneiform Folders related to Library history: Library history Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Information science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Library science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Library topic A library in Oxford, England The Halifax Central Library in Nova Scotia, Canada, a modern city library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, selected by experts and made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to Folders related to Library: Types of library Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Libraries Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Book promotion Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Education for librarianship topic Education for librarianship in the United States and Canada generally consists of a master's degree program in library science. In the 19th century, although some librarians followed this older pattern, others prepared as apprentices under the direction of established li Folders related to Education for librarianship: Library science education Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Librarians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Library science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.


Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals topic The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals is a professional body for librarians, information specialists and knowledge managers in the United Kingdom. Information science topic The Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. Foundations Scope and approach Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved an Folders related to Information science: Information Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Library science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Social sciences Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Preprint topic In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal. Glossary of library and information science topic This page is a glossary of library and information science. An example of a file that should be put in an appendix is a file of detailed charts and Folders related to Glossary of library and information science: Glossaries of science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Library science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Information science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Grey literature topic Grey literature or gray literature are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. The use of statistical approaches known as meta-analysis Folders related to Evidence-based library and information practice: Library science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Evidence-based practices Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Information science Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.


Onfim topic Onfim's homework exercises and "I am a wild beast", c. Library instruction topic Library instruction, also called bibliographic instruction BI , user education and library orientation, consists of "instructional programs designed to teach library users how to locate the information they need quickly and effectively.

Auxiliary sciences of history topic Auxiliary or ancillary sciences of history are scholarly disciplines which help evaluate and use historical sources and are seen as auxiliary for historical research. Special library topic Group tours the nonprofit Foundation for Economic Education library, best known for Austrian economics collections A special library is a library that provides specialized information resources on a particular subject, serves a specialized and limited clientele, and delivers specialized services to that clientele.

They are developed to support the mission of their sponsoring orga Folders related to Special library: Libraries by subject Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Libraries by type Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Types of library Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Georgia Tech Library topic The Georgia Tech Library is an academic library that serves the needs of students, faculty, and staff at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Libraries in Georgia U.